“Latin forms of address from Plautus to Apuleius” by Eleanor Dickey

Beautifully written and produced – hardly a single typo throughout. Her introduction is a fascinating survey of forms of address across languages, and is particularly interesting on English.

Although much of the detail is there more for scholarly completeness than direct interest, Dickey does bring out some, for me, startling observations and conclusions:

The tria nomina system (praenomen, nomen/”gentilicium”, cognomen) we are used to is only really an Imperial phenomenon; in the Republic this was usually used just by noble families.
“domine” was not used by slaves to their master, but had more the force of “mister” or “sir”; also used between friends and lovers. Slaves used “ere/era”, a term used only in this context.
Superlatives such as “optime”, “maxime” and “sanctissime” do not keep their superlative sense, and indeed sometimes are less than their positive counterparts (from grade-creep [the watering down of polite forms, as English “you”], and from the fact that these positive forms are not found in prose).
“pulcher” is used in addresses by women; “formose” by men.
“hospes” can be used by native to foreigner and vice versa; ξενε only from native to foreigner.
“miser” and “infelix” mean ‘someone whose situation could be pitied, but not necessarily from the speaker’ – this explains the “wretched” angle.
“homo” has a male sense, as “vir” by default means “husband”.
“virgo” conveys respect; “puella” implies the possibility of sexual interest, but not necessarily from the speaker (it’s used by fathers).
Generic addresses (e.g. “vicine”, “miles”, “poeta”) are unmarked when the speaker’s name is known, marked when it is used instead of a known name.
“o” was only rarely used; “ω” seems to have been the default in Greek.
“puer” seems to have been reserved, at least by poets, for particularly charged addresses, e.g. Aeneas’ farewell to Pallas; else names or “nate”.
“uxor” is default; “coniunx” poetic.
Cicero’s addressing of Catiline directly at the start of Verrine I is incredibly dramatic, as usually you’d address the senators en masse.
“Romane” was directed at all Romans as a people; “Romani” to a particular group.

New words: leno “pimp”, furcifer “one punished with a furca [a kind of fork] (so not from fur)

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